During a 20-year span, from 1994 to 2013, Chinese outbound tourism increased 16 fold, reaching 98.2 million.
A new book that details the latest trends in outbound travel from China has been published, with Dr. Xiang (Robert) Li of Temple University’s School of Tourism and Hospitality Management (STHM) serving as its editor.
Professor of Tourism and Hospitality Management at STHM, Li acted as the primary editor of the 23-chapter book, titled “Chinese Outbound Tourism 2.0.” The book, published in November 2015 by Apple Academic Press, melds the world’s leading authors and tourism experts to examine their research findings and offer insights on the blossoming Chinese outbound travel market and its tourists.
“Chinese outbound tourism is changing the world’s tourism landscape,” said Li, a Washburn Senior Research Fellow at Temple University. “We are witnessing one of the most spectacular phenomena in the modern tourism history unfold in front of us. It is exciting to study the Chinese outbound tourism. ”
“Chinese Outbound Tourism 2.0” appeals to a wide audience of academics, destination marketers, destination policymakers, tourism-industry professionals, and world travelers. The book offers a thorough examination of the fast-growing Chinese outbound tourist market, which as recently as 1994 registered only 6.1 million trips.
China is now the world’s largest tourism source market.
Chinese travelers in recent years have demonstrated a greater willingness to visit unfamiliar destinations, Li said, growing more value conscious and technologically savvy. This second wave of Chinese travelers is why he coined the term “Chinese Outbound Tourism 2.0.” He also points to Mercedes-Benz launching its premium travel service brand, called Mercedes-Benz Travel, in Shanghai; InterContinental Hotels Group designing the Hualuxe brand specifically for Chinese consumers; and China’s Wanda Hotels & Resorts building a 5-star hotel in London as further evidence to support the growth in Chinese outbound tourism.
“Any future historian looking back at when China began to dominate travel and tourism at home and abroad may well pinpoint 2014-15 as a turning point,” said David Scowsill, President and CEO of the World Travel & Tourism Council, who wrote the book’s foreword. “China will become increasingly central to our sector’s growth over the next decade. … We applaud Dr. Xiang (Robert) Li and his colleagues’ insightful discussion on the latest development and trends of Chinese outbound tourism.”
Li, whose research focuses mainly on international destination marketing and tourism behavior, is the author or co-author of more than 120 publications. Many of his publications have appeared in top-tier tourism, business, leisure and hospitality journals, such as theJournal of Tourism Research, Annals of Tourism Research, Tourism Management and Journal of Business Research.
He serves on the editorial boards of more than 10 journals and book series, including the Journal of Travel Research and Journal of Leisure Research. To date, he has been awarded over $1.25 million in research funding from numerous prestigious foundations, government agencies, destination marketing organizations and companies.
After the jerseys have been washed and the grandstands have been cleared of clutter, a professional sports teams’ work is just beginning. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) or a team’s efforts to use its impact for the greater good of its community, is no longer a secondary concern to the product they assemble on the field.
For Dr. R. Aubrey Kent, Professor and chair of the School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, CSR is an integral aspect of a sports team’s contribution to the community.
“CSR is important to a double or triple bottom line that includes social and environmental impacts,” said Kent, whose extensive research into CSR has produced multiple published articles and international presentations. “Sports teams are trying to grow a brand that goes beyond performance by being committed to the community.”
Kent’s work with the Professional Golf Association (PGA) in Florida spurred on his research interest in CSR. The PGA is widely known as one of the most-charitable professional sport leagues and organizations. In 2015, the PGA added 10 non-profit charities to its already lengthy roster. In his research into CSR and sports, Kent said he’s seen other sports leagues and organizations follow in the PGA’s footsteps in adopting a community-centric approach to business management.
Major League Baseball’s Philadelphia Phillies and the National Football League’s Philadelphia Eagles are known for their socially responsible and sustainability work, hosting “Go Green” games each season. But, as Kent found, the Phillies are less known for their efforts at reducing childhood hunger, or the Eagles for their work providing optometry services to children from low-income families. The fact that these ventures remain relatively unknown is what differentiates CSR from more-familiar marketing campaigns, Kent explained.
“Every single team has separate charitable organizations with very little publicity or fanfare,” Kent said.
As teams’ efforts maintain a low profile and provide the team with little to no financial benefit, Kent said identifying a team’s motivation for giving back can be difficult. Aside from the most-obvious altruistic intentions, Kent said other reasons include a team’s eagerness to satisfy intrinsic value systems and its hope that such values could appeal to more conscientious fans.
“The motivations have to be ingrained and value-laden because the financial incentives aren’t there,” Kent said. “Today, we care more, as a consumer class, about things that aren’t purely economic.”
Though CSR won’t change consumer opinion too greatly, as fans remain more concerned with performance on the field than corporate responsibility off of it, Kent said consumers have taken notice to team’s or a player’s CSR. Or lack thereof.
“Athletes are held to a higher standard because of the impact they have on youth,” Kent said.
The social impact athletes have as heroes among children can produce positive results in education and anti-drug campaigns, he said. Similar results are seen with negative behavior. When news broke of a 2007 investigation into National Football League player Michael Vick’s involvement in a dog-fighting ring, his team – the Atlanta Falcons – made a considerable donation to local humane shelters and animal societies. Fans reacted negatively, accusing the Falcons of making a reactionary donation.
The difference between a genuine and an insincere response, Kent said, is for teams to find that “sweet spot” between performing their social duties and publicizing their efforts. Kent found that teams are facing a more complex branding system, as they attempt to promote their social values while maneuvering daily amid a conscientious fan base.
“Sports are much more engaging emotionally, and there’s an ability to forgive bad deeds,” Kent said. “Ultimately, CSR is about sending positive societal messages.”
Colorful Post-It notes lined the walls inside the Kimmel Center for the Performing Arts, each one containing intricate details on how to improve Philadelphia’s mass-transit system.
At the fifth-annual Fox DESIGNchallenge, a civic innovation challenge, students aimed to collaboratively transform their ideas into meaningful change in their community. This year’s objective focused upon identifying problem areas and generating feasible solutions in mass transit, car culture and the quality of urban life.
The event, organized by the Center for Design+Innovation (cD+i) at Temple University’s Fox School of Business and the Design for Social Impact Program at The University of the Arts, rendered two first-place teams.
“SEPTA is something everyone understands. It impacts everybody because it’s the network that moves the city,” said James Moustafellos, Associate Director of cD+i and an Assistant Professor of Management Information Systems at Fox. “The whole issue SEPTA is facing is, how do you have mass transit in a city that has a car culture?”
One of the winning teams provided methods for creating a more-enjoyable experience for Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (SEPTA) passengers. The team members, including four Fox School students and one from Temple’s Tyler School of Art, designed a SEPTA “Smart Shelter.” The enclosed bus stop would provide digital information boards indicating arrival times and routes, and a well-lit interior as a safety precaution.
Another first-place team, featuring three Fox students, centered its designs on revamping existing SEPTA technology. The team suggested creating a new payment system using smart-phone applications, as well as providing video boards on concourse levels to display arrival times and available capacity on incoming trains.
“The result was to form a less auto-centric future for the city,” Moustafellos said. “A lot of the students’ designs centered around convenience, quality and cleanliness of the system, safety and communication methods.”
The Fox DESIGNchallenge brought together 150 students from colleges and high schools in the region, forming 20 teams geared toward solving the problem. First- and second-place teams received cash prizes. In addition to receiving monthly vouchers from SEPTA, the proposals from top-three finishers may be displayed on video boards throughout SEPTA’s transit system.
In the lead-up to the Feb. 25 final presentations at the Kimmel Center, teams interviewed civic, business and community leaders at a networking roundtable discussion. Then, they researched areas of interest, identified community problems and opportunities and ultimately complied their work to assemble design solutions that are humanly feasible and economically satisfying.
According to the American Public Transportation Association, Philadelphians could save an average of $12,000 per year by eliminating one car or by using public transportation more frequently.
“This is more than just a fun exercise,” Moustafellos said. “It’s really about experiential learning at its best. It’s about civic engagement. You become much more aware of the place you live in, its issues and how you can become an active participant in your society and make a change.”
“Design is much more than just look and feel nowadays,” said Dr. Youngjin Yoo, the Harry A. Cochran Professor of Management Information Systems and the Director of cD+i. “Companies like Apple, Samsung, IBM and P&G have shown us that design must be embraced as core strategic capability of a company, not just an afterthought. The DESIGNchallenge is an important component of the Fox MBA program. This gives a first-hand, real-life experience of designing solutions for complex business problems.”
The Fox DESIGNchallenge was funded in part by The Knight Foundation and the U.S. Economic Development Agency, through support of Temple’s Urban Apps and Maps Studios.
Overlooking the Center City from the top floor of Alter Hall, marketing doctoral students and faculty from colleges and universities in the Mid-Atlantic region gathered as part of the Fox School of Business’ third-annual Mid-Atlantic Doctoral Symposium (MADS).
PhD students from Rutgers University, New York University, the University of Pennsylvania, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, and the Fox School joined distinguished faculty from the region to discuss burgeoning research on big data analytics, marketing communications, consumer behavior and more at the day-long event, held March 27.
“It’s great for faculty and doctoral students to come together and learn,” said Andy Reinaker, a fourth-year doctoral candidate at the Fox School, who helped co-coordinate the event.
The impetus of former Fox PhD student Mike Obal, now a marketing professor at the University of Massachusetts at Lowell, helped spur the event’s creation three years ago. The Mid-Atlantic Doctoral Symposium has seen a steady rise in attendance, as researchers have shown an interest in networking with others in their field.
To expose the attendees to the diverse interests in the room, students from myriad universities presented their latest research throughout the day to the larger group. Trading places with the student researchers, the faculty members in attendance also hosted panels on transitioning from doctoral studies to professorships, as well as lessons they had learned from years of research.
In addition to the presentations, students and faculty were invited to network with one another. Going beyond discovering common interests, students and faculty were encouraged to consider chances for collaboration and foster relationships that cross state and university lines.
“Because it’s such a small group, it’s a great place to have these types of conversations. We build the day for that to happen,” said Lindsay Clark, Assistant Director of Special Projects in the Office of Research, Doctoral Programs, and Strategic Initiatives at the Fox School.
In his opening remarks, Fox School Dean M. Moshe Porat reflected upon the opportunities the Mid-Atlantic Doctoral Symposium presents to students from colleges and universities located from Connecticut to North Carolina.
“Beyond our distinguished guest speakers, this symposium affords everyone here a chance to develop both research and social relationships that will foster the success of your future projects,” Porat said in his address.
Echoing Porat’s sentiments was Dr. Paul A. Pavlou, Associate Dean of Doctoral Programs and Chief Research Officer for the Fox School.
“It is my pleasure to continue to support this event,” Pavlou said. “We pride ourselves on the successes and achievements of all of our students in their academics and future careers.”
Tyrha Lindsey-Warren, a PhD candidate from Rutgers University interested in marketing communications, who has attended the symposium since in its inaugural year, said she returns to the event annually “because of the intimacy and the environment created. It’s not stuffy, and you feel comfortable.”
Keynote speaker Dr. David Griffith, of Lehigh University, agreed that the experience at the Mid-Atlantic Doctoral Symposium is unique.
“This is a fantastic opportunity for doctoral students to learn about what it takes to be successful,” Griffith said. “It’s becoming a very premier event.”
As soon as Philadelphia was announced as the home of the 2016 Democratic National Convention, faculty members in Temple’s School of Tourism and Hospitality Management (STHM) began making appearances in the regional media to share expertise and analysis.
STHM Associate Dean and Associate Professor Elizabeth H. Barber joined the Fox29 set near Independence Mall for an extended live conversation with anchor Lucy Noland about the convention. The cascading benefits to the city and the hospitality industry will extend far beyond economic opportunity, Barber said, noting that nearly 5,000 new jobs were created in Charlotte when that city hosted the 2012 Democratic National Convention.
“And when people come to Philadelphia and see what a wonderful city this is, they’ll tell their friends—and they’ll come back,” said Barber, who also spoke with NBC10 reporter Cydney Long in Mitten Hall.
CBS3 reporter David Spunt sat in on a class discussion about the convention and its impact on the hospitality industry led by STHM Assistant Professor Ira Rosen. Rosen also provided visitation projections to The Philadelphia Daily News, shared his thoughts on the next mayor’s role in the city’s ascent in the hospitality industry with WHYY/NewsWorks and discussed the social impact of the convention with The Delaware County Daily Times.
Rosen said that Philadelphia’s reputation for planning and executing blockbuster events, from the Made in America concerts to the Philadelphia Flower Show, has grown since 2000, when the city hosted the Republican National Convention.
“The RNC was a huge crapshoot. It was a big roll of the dice,” Rosen told WHYY/NewsWorks. “And the city has done great on every major event since.”
STHM Professor Wesley Roehl spoke with PhillyVoice.com—a new player in the Philadelphia media market—underscoring the 2000 convention’s role in setting the stage for 2016.
“There had been a lot of investment in the hotel sector and in Center City,” Roehl said. “The 2000 RNC was the city’s coming out party.”
Researchers at Temple University’s Fox School of Business have identified an area of the brain that can significantly better predict the success of TV advertising.
Professors Angelika Dimoka, Paul A. Pavlou and Vinod Venkatraman led the research study at Temple’s Center for Neural Decision Making at the Fox School of Business. The research team received a $286,000 research grant from the Advertising Research Foundation (ARF), a non-profit group that provided TV ads from major sponsor companies in the consumer-goods, financial, technology, travel, and pharmaceutical industries.. The study sought to understand whether measures obtained in the lab when a small number of consumers watched these TV ads can predict the success of these ads in terms of increasing sales in the market.
Their research paper recently has been accepted for publication in the Journal for Marketing Research, a top marketing journal. They completed the study in collaboration with researchers from New York University, Duke University and the University of California, Los Angeles, who analyzed available sales and success data from the TV ads.
Fox School’s research team evaluated the responses of more than 300 participants to television advertisements using eight distinct methods: traditional surveys; implicit measures; eye tracking; heart rate; skin conductance; breathing; and brain activity, as measured by fMRI (functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging) and EEG (electroencephalography).
“This is the first study to relate individual-level measures in the lab to market-level behavior,” said Venkatraman, lead author and Assistant Professor of Marketing. “We show that physiological and brain responses to a 30-second TV advertisement can provide reliable markers for evaluating its actual success in the market.”
“Based on our research and findings, from all seven neurophysiological methods, brain data collected using fMRI, were the most predictive,” added Angelika Dimoka, Director of the Center for Neural Decision Making, and an Associate Professor of Marketing. Specifically, we are able to show that activation in an area of the brain known as the ventral striatum, the reward center of the brain, can predict a TV ad success. The higher the activation in the ventral striatum, the higher the success of the TV ad. Nobody has ever been able to make such a linkage.”
The findings suggest that a key to a successful TV ad, Venkatraman noted, is the ability to increase the desirability of the product featured in the TV ad – a construct that is difficult to measure through the use of traditional, self-reported measures.
“A researcher might ask a test participant, more traditionally, ‘Do you like this ad? Are you likely to purchase this product?’” said Pavlou, Fox School’s Associate Dean of Research and Chief Research Officer. “While subjective measures like traditional questionnaires can still predict the success of TV advertising, the use of neurophysiological measures, especially fMRI, can almost double the power of our prediction.”
Dimoka, Pavlou and Venkatraman began their research December 2012, after meeting ARF officials at the second Interdisciplinary Symposium on Decision Neuroscience, spo nsored and hosted by the Fox School of Business. They concluded their testing and research six months later.
A professor from Temple University’s Fox School of Business found inspiration for her research in a rather unconventional place.
Inspired by the television show, Hoarders, Dr. Boyoun (Grace) Chae and co-author Dr. Rui (Juliet) Zhu found during a three-year research study that efficiency and persistence suffered among people whose work conditions were untidy.
Harvard Business Review recently featured the findings of their research study, which was originally published by the Journal of Consumer Research in April 2014.
“Hoarders, that’s where the idea started from,” said Chae, Assistant Professor of Marketing and Supply Chain Management at the Fox School. “It’s a critical issue in society. Think about why people really cannot throw things away. I think it’s a reflection on peoples’ preoccupation with what they have. People buy products and they have control over what they consume, but, ironically, people are overwhelmed with their possessions.”
Chae and Zhu, of the Cheung Kong Graduate School of Business in Beijing, China, exposed 100 test subjects to one of two work settings – either an organized desk, with papers and folders in order and shelves with properly arranged items, or an unorganized desk, with items strewn about carelessly.
Then, they conducted multiple tests during their research study. Among them was the persistence task, during which test subjects were required “to trace a geometric figure on a piece of paper without retracing any lines and without lifting the pencil from the paper,” they wrote. In their paper, Chae and Zhu describe the test as unsolvable. Subjects in the orderly office were one-and-a-half times more likely to stick with the task before quitting, Chae said. Those in the cleaner room attempted the challenge for an average of 1,117 seconds, while those in a disorganized setting gave up after an average of 669 seconds.
Other tests included: the stroop task, which measured the speed with which subjects could accurately respond to complex visual stimuli on a computer screen; and the willingness-to-pay task, another self-regulation measure which gauged the purchase intention of a subject with various products. Chae said subjects in the cleaner office responded to visual stimuli 10 to 15 percent more quickly than those in a more-chaotic room, “a quite significant finding,” she said.
“Writing a paper for a journal is purely academic, so to have our research appear in Harvard Business Review was a way for our research study and findings to be consumed by a much-wider audience,” Chae said. “We were delighted to take their call.”
A research paper authored by a current PhD student at Temple University’s Fox School of Business has earned international acclaim.
Pauline Milwood recently received the Best Paper Award at the second biennial Advances in Destination Management Conference, for her paper titled, “Knowledge, Innovation and the Role of the Destination Management Organization: Integrating Stakeholder and Network Perspectives.”
A PhD student with a concentration in Tourism and Sport, Milwood was honored at the conference, which took place June 11-13, in St. Gallen, Switzerland. She co-authored the paper with her advisor, Dr. Wesley S. Roehl, a professor from Temple’s School of Tourism and Hospitality Management.
“It felt extremely gratifying (to be recognized),” Milwood said. “The PhD program is extremely grueling. It kind of makes the thorns and challenges that develop in the process of doing research all worth it in the end.”
The paper integrates stakeholder and network perspectives to examine the role played by destination management organizations (DMOs) in developing competitive advantage. Ultimately, the paper suggests that DMOs should utilize more involvement and collaboration engagement strategies and less control and monitoring engagements strategies to influence successful innovation outcomes among destination partners.
The research has implications for a wide range of entities, according to Milwood.
“The dynamic of government, business, and local residents’ roles comes into play when we’re talking about innovation development of a tourism area,” Milwood said.
In addition to its practical implications, the research enhances the theoretical ideas of network and stakeholder theorists.
“There is benefit to blending theories to better understand both structure and process dynamics of these relationships among public, private and third-sector interests, specifically as it relates to developing innovation in tourism,” Milwood said.
The Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, within which the paper will likely be published, co-sponsored the award.