ProfessorDaniel R. Fesenmaier, called “without peer among the currently active researchers in tourism,” has received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the international Travel and Tourism Research Association (TTRA).

Fesenmaier, who is director of the National Laboratory for Tourism and eCommerce, was given the honor at TTRA’s annual conference in June in Kansas City.

Fesenmaier has authored more than 110 refereed research articles in top-tier journals, 120 book chapters and conference proceedings, and edited 10 books, monographs and proceedings. He has served as principal or co-principal investigator for more than 100 funded projects totaling nearly $7 million and continues to lead national research that monitors how technology shapes the ways Americans travel, in addition to involvement with a variety of international initiatives.

“He has been and continues to be one of the leading minds on the applications of information technology to tourism marketing,” wrote nominators TTRA President Richard R. Perdue of Virginia Tech; Pauline Sheldon, professor emeritus of the University of Hawaii; and Mitch Nichols, president and CEO of Nichols Tourism Group. “His work on Internet technologies, the design and evaluation of web-based tourism marketing, and destination marketing strategy is the very best body of work on these critical topics.”

Fesenmaier’s colleagues widely credit him for his strong work ethic and his commitment to using much of the grant money he receives to support the education and research of graduate students, whom he mentors closely.

In their nomination letter, Perdue and colleagues said Fesenmaier has chaired 44 graduate student committees and that many of his students have “gone on to become major contributors to our tourism research,” including seven who have been appointed to the editorial board of the TTRA-published Journal of Travel Research (JTR), the premier journal focusing on travel and tourism behavior, management and development.

“I have a passion for ideas that help in understanding and solving problems, and I enjoy very much in bringing together the greatness of the university with the ingenuity of the professionals in tourism and the challenges facing the industry,” Fesenmaier said. “I have had a number of really great masters and PhD students who have made me look good. I would like to thank each of them for trusting me and including me in their lives. Without a doubt, they are the reason I am here today.”

In addition to his contributions to the academic and business communities in tourism, Fesenmaier has had extensive involvement with TTRA, including serving on the JTR editorial board for the past 20 years, serving as editor for the JTR Foundations in Tourism Research series and currently serving on the organization’s board of directors.

This is Fesenmaier’s second lifetime achievement award in recent months. He also received the International Federation for IT and Travel & Tourism’s Hannes Werthner Tourism and Technology Lifetime Achievement Award.

In addition, Fesenmaier and PhD student Jason L. Stienmetz recently received an Excellent Paper Award at the 2013 TOSOK International Tourism Conference in Seoul, Korea. Their co-authored paper, “Traveling the Network: A Proposal for New Destination Performance Metrics,” will be published in the International Journal of Tourism Sciences.

–Brandon Lausch

Sport and Recreation Management Associate Professor Joris Drayer of the School of Tourism and Hospitality Management won the Best Paper award – his second in four years – at the 2013 Sport Marketing Association (SMA) conference, held Oct. 23-26 in Albuquerque, N.M.

Drayer wrote Examining the Role of Fairness in Sport Consumer Ticket Purchases with Assistant Professor Stephen L. Shapiro of Old Dominion University and Assistant Professor Brendan Dwyer of Virginia Commonwealth University. The team also won the Best Paper award from SMA in 2010, selected from 130 submissions worldwide.

“When we won the award a few years ago, it was a total surprise and something that, as a young faculty member, you don’t expect,” Drayer said. “Now, having been a finalist two years ago and winning it again this year, it really validates the quality of the work that we’re doing. It’s such an honor to work with those guys, and it’s a great example of the whole being greater than the sum of its parts.”

The winning paper examines the relationship among various ticket price offers, market, price fluctuations, perceived fairness, and intentions to purchase Major League Baseball tickets.

“It has been argued that consumer perceptions of fairness regarding real-time ticket price fluctuations, such as dynamic ticket pricing (DTP), could influence purchase decisions,” Drayer and his team mentioned in the paper.

Familiarity with DTP and ticket resale in the secondary market was also examined to identify potential moderating effects on perceptions of fairness and purchase intentions.

The research team, through a partnership with the Philadelphia Daily News, had access to a panel of 2,566 Philadelphia-area sports fans. Of those sports fans, 505 participants returned surveys after the study was conducted.

The team found that respondents with different offer price scenarios significantly differ regarding how fair they believe the offer to be, and they differ in their purchase intentions. This ultimately suggests that consumer perceptions of price fairness change based on pricing strategies, and attitudes based on information provided in a transaction could prevent consumers from maximizing utility.

The findings of the paper could be used to help sport organizations understand the impact of ticket price changes.

Drayer has written two book chapters and published more than 30 articles in numerous journals — including Sport Management Review, Sport Marketing Quarterly and the Journal of Sport Management. He co-authored another paper about dynamic ticketing pricing strategies, which has recently been accepted in Sport Management Review.

Drayer is a member of the North American Society for Sport Management and the Sport Marketing Association and has presented at more than 20 national and international sport industry conferences.

—Alexis Wright-Whitley

Anthony Di Benedetto, professor of marketing and supply chain management and Senior Washburn Research Fellow, has been ranked sixth globally among innovation management scholars.

Temple University was also highlighted as one of the top 10 innovation management universities in the world, ranked 10th. Temple and the University of Pennsylvania are the only universities in Greater Philadelphia to be ranked.

“I’ve been very fortunate,” Di Benedetto said. “You want to get semi-famous. You’re not going to be American Idol famous, but you are going to get known in your area.”

Researchers Pianpian Yang and Lei Tao, of Xi’an Jiaotong University in China, collected articles published in the two leading innovation management journals, one of which Di Benedetto has edited for nine years — the Journal of Product Innovation Management (JPIM) —and the top five management journals, determining if the published articles pertained to innovation management.

A count of published articles – totaling 1,229 between 1991 and 2010 – was used to determine the ranking. Scholars were ranked according to the amount of articles they published in that set, with the scholar with the most articles being ranked the highest. Di Benedetto published 16 articles.

In addition to JPIM, IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management was the other leading innovation management journal. The top five management journals included Strategic Management Journal, Management Science, Administrative Science Quarterly, Academy of Management Review and Academy of Management Journal.

When Di Benedetto was a junior professor in the early ’80s, he discovered that there was little research on new product innovation. Most of the work was done in fields such as advertising and sales force management, but there were not many studies where researchers gathered hundreds of products, both successful and unsuccessful, and distinguished the differences between them.

“My supervisor at that time said, ‘If you stick with innovation, you could really make a difference and be a leader, because there are few people and a lot of unanswered research questions,’” Di Benedetto said.

Di Benedetto followed that advice and looked for ways to tap into under-researched fields. One of his most recent publications involved researching the timing of launch, which had not been well addressed by academics. The study drew from the supply chain literature, and it found that completing a lean launch was most efficient. A lean launch would allow a company to buy an option of either releasing their product immediately or delaying it until the timing improved.

Di Benedetto has also received the Research Publication Award for 2014 from the International Association for Management of Technology. He was one of the top 50 researchers in management of technology worldwide, based on publications during the last five years. Di Benedetto also received this award in 2009.

“I’ve always felt that they’ve supported my research here,” Di Benedetto said. “So it’s always been a good place to do research in this area. I don’t want to stop contributing. I’ve got a long way to go at Temple.” –Alexis Wright-Whitley

It’s not every day that you get a chance to work alongside the president. But Fox School of Business PhD student Pat Barbro is one of the lucky people who does.

Barbro, a PhD candidate in marketing, is the teaching assistant for Temple University President Neil D. Theobald’s class, titled President’s Seminar – Organizational Change at Temple University.

Barbro had not anticipated an opportunity for the position. Theobald asked the Dean’s Office in the Fox School of Business to provide him with recommendations of students who would best suit the teaching assistant position.

“The Dean’s Office called me and asked if I would be interested,” Barbro said. “It sounded really unique, so I thought, ‘Sure, I’m interested.’” After interviewing with Dr. Theobald, he was offered the position.

As teaching assistant, Barbro handles various class-related activities, including preparing and gathering necessities for Theobald before the start of each class and corresponding with students outside of class hours. He has also been asked to assist in co-teaching on subjects such as healthcare and insurance.

The class is broken into two parts that together take a year to complete. The first semester served as an overview of various parts of the university, providing students with a multitude of information with the intent of having them figure out what it is they would like to fix or see changed at the university.

“My favorite part about the class is actually learning more about the university and all of the nuances of what goes on that I would have no idea about otherwise,” Barbro said. “And I enjoy seeing the interaction from two different sides: president and freshman thoughts. It gives you a lot of perspective on how people view things.”

Theobald chose to tap into the pool of freshman students who were President’s Scholars, which is the top scholarship Temple offers, and who demonstrated leadership qualities.

At the end of the Fall 2013 semester, after discussing topics regarding on-campus safety, dining services, healthcare, the commuter experience and student debt, among others, the students were asked to write a paper about an issue that stood out to them and that they would like to be a part of changing.

This semester, they will work in groups to develop and propose ways in which they can implement change on the topic they chose. This involves giving students access to a plethora of resources as well as access to departmental heads.

Some of the questions students seek to answer include: How can we make students feel safer on or around campus?; How can Temple improve its overall dining experience (i.e., food options, meal plans, locations)?; How can Temple improve student healthcare services?; and How can Temple create a more financially literate student body?

The end goal is for the students to create a project proposal that Theobald and the university can implement as the students continue their time at Temple.

Barbro was slightly surprised by the working relationship he and Theobald maintain.

“Initially knowing you’re working with the head, president or CEO, you think, ‘What did I get myself into?’” Barbro said. “But even just from the interview, I could tell how laid back and self-sufficient he is. He’s also surprisingly accessible, considering that he’s busy 20 hours a day.”

—Alexis Wright-Whitley

 

The Fox School of Business presented Dr. Jagbir Singh with the Lifetime Achievement Award at the 15th Annual Research Roundtable and Research Awards on October 25, 2013.  Dr. Singh, a Professor of Statistics, has taught across disciplines for more than three decades at Temple University.  He has authored or co-authored over 50 research papers; co-authored books on Statistical Methods in Food and Consumer Research; co-edited one on Recent Advances in Experimental Designs; and co-edited special issues of the Journal of Risk Finance and the Journal of Applied Statistical Science.  He is an elected Fellow of the American Statistical Association, and an elected member of the International Statistical Institute.  Dr. Singh has been honored with the highest awards from Temple University and Temple University Alumni Association in recognition of his teaching and research contributions to the profession.   Fox’s Lifetime Achievement Award is designed to recognize a full-time, tenured faculty member at the Fox School of Business who has exhibited a lifetime of achievement in teaching, research, and service.

Leading innovation management scholar Professor Anthony Di Benedetto of Temple University’s Fox School of Business has received another accolade for his research, this time being ranked as one of the Top 45 scholars globally in the Technology Innovation Management (TIM) field by the International Association for Management of Technology (IAMOT).

“Through publication, the recipients of this award have undergone the most rigorous scrutiny of their work, assessment by peer-evaluators in ISI-Indexed Journals that are dedicated to research in the Management of Technology and Innovation,” John Aje, president of IAMOT, said in a letter announcing the ranking.

The ranking is based on the number of articles published by an author during the last five years in the top academic TIM journals — including the Journal of Product Innovation Management, Research Policy, Research Technology Management, Technological Forecasting and Social Change and Technovation.

Di Benedetto was ranked in the Top 45 from a pool of thousands of academics worldwide.

“The awardees are truly international,” Aje said. “Researchers from over 10 different countries have qualified this year.”

Di Benedetto was also recently ranked sixth globally among innovation management scholars in the Journal of Product Innovation Management for publishing 16 articles in the two leading innovation management journals, the Journal of Product Innovation Management — which Di Benedetto has edited for nine years — and IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management.

Di Benedetto is a professor of marketing and supply chain management at the Fox School as well as a Washburn Research Fellow.

“I’m delighted to receive this recognition, and to be included in this group of technology management researchers that includes some of the people who have been the biggest influence on my career,” Di Benedetto said.

—Alexis Wright-Whitley

 

Gaps in academic literature focusing on computer-mediated environments have been synthesized to offer potential for new research and design models.

Milton F. Stauffer Professor of Information Technology and Strategy Paul A. Pavlou, of Temple University’s Fox School of Business, and Macy’s Foundation Professor Manjit S. Yadav, of Texas A&M University, organized and synthesized academic research around four key interactions in CMEs: consumer-firm, firm-consumer, consumer-consumer and firm-firm.

Pavlou and Yadav synthesized 124 articles from four widely recognized journals — Journal of Marketing, Journal of Marketing Research, Marketing Science and Journal of Consumer Research — into specialized topics to identify gaps by juxtaposing current research with marketplace practices and emerging trends.

“Of course, in any literature, there are gaps.” Pavlou said. “This type of literature is very broad, and it’s natural for people to focus on what’s interesting and timely. That’s why there are gaps.”

Gaps found in consumer-firm interactions indicate the needs to understand that there are new shopping contexts that may be useful for categorization and research. The gaps also suggest that the structure of consumers’ shopping funnel — a large number of choices winnowed down to a final selection — needs to be examined more closely.

Furthermore, as little is known about how consumers navigate and integrate information from various types of devices and interfaces in CMEs, finer process models need to be developed, which would enhance consumer-firm interactions.

There are also gaps in theory development opportunities that affect firm-consumer interactions. In order to fill this, enhanced consumer visibility, which will allow firms to capture and detail consumers’ activities in CMEs, needs to be given a more central role in theory development. In doing so, a more integrated view can be provided of firms’ marketing activities across online and offline environments.

In terms of consumer-consumer interaction, gaps related to the growing interest in social commerce as well as the shift in the type of content generation that occurs in social networks need to be addressed. These gaps pave the way for three main avenues for theory development.

First, social commerce needs to be clarified to include purchase and non-purchase activities in social networks. Second, understanding the creation, consumption and dissemination of content in social networks should be an important priority. Third, theoretical work is needed that delineates the costs and benefits of consumers’ investments of time and effort on social media.

In order to address the gaps found in firm-firm interactions, research needs to focus more closely on concepts such as external and internal coordination that are important to transaction costs analysis and agency theory. This is because of the inter-organizational shifts due to emerging intermediaries in business-to-busines marketplaces, platform-based competition, and new types of reverse auctions.

By synthesizing literature, Pavlou and Yadav also yielded suggestions to develop methodological innovations as it pertains to new data, new designs and new models.

“Multiple parties can benefit from this research,” Pavlou said. “I see graduate students, PhD students and novices in the area getting the most benefit. It’s easier for them to read over a synthesis versus trying to synthesize over 100 papers to find gaps on their own.”

Pavlou and Yadav’s article, Marketing in Computer-Mediated Environments: Research Synthesis and New Directions, has been accepted for publication in the Journal of Marketng, an A journal.

School of Tourism and Hospitality Management Associate Professor Joel G. Maxcy and University of Oklahoma Department of Health and Exercise Science Lecturer Daniel J. Larson recently published an article titled “The industrial organization of sport coaches: Road cycling as a distinguished case” in the Journal of Sport Management.

The September 2013 paper presents a theoretical model of the organization of the sport coaching industry. It is the first study to show in formal mathematical expressions how coaches are appropriated into the employment settings of sports teams. The model, based on a variety of considered sport characteristics, predicts whether the individual athlete or the sport organization will be the direct employer of coaches. The example of professional cycling coaches is presented at length and offers empirical evidence that is consistent with the model’s predictions. Other sports settings are discussed within the paper as well.

“This work stemmed from my simple observation of the cycling coaching market, where commercially well developed teams hired almost no ‘team’ coaches, and instead the cyclists hired their coaches independently,” Larson said. “When I examined this further, it became clear that there was very little research on the overall industrial organization of coaches, let alone a theory to explain these interesting outcomes.”

Maxcy, who served as Larson’s PhD advisor at the University of Georgia, was eager to lend his expertise to this project. According to Maxcy, who has made numerous contributions in this area, the literature on industrial organization of team-sport leagues and player labor markets is quite well developed in sports economics. Nonetheless, the coaching industry, a significant part of sports, had not been modeled.

“Dan’s experience as a cycling athlete and coach provided a significant intuitive dimension that greatly helped facilitate the formal modeling process,” Maxcy said.

Larson also explained that this research could lead to improved models of the coaching industry as well as empirical tests of the theory. He said that it could be a particularly useful start for examining consulting and external training services in broader industrial settings where coached employees also work within teams.

Maxcy said that a critical contribution of this work is separating the coaches’ roles into trainer and strategist components. “In most sports, one role or the other dominates the coach’s task list, and the integration of the two roles goes a long way in the determination of the employment relationship,” he said.

Larson’s research background is largely comprised of the study of economics and marketing of competitive cycling. These endeavors were preceded by substantial work experience in cycling coaching and international professional cycling team management.

Maxcy has an extensive research background in sport labor relations and industrial organization. His related past publications include articles that have examined issues such as free agency, contract length, and compensation in professional sport.

Fox School of Business PhD candidate Snehal Awate, whose research interests include newly emerging industries, emerging markets, economic geography, innovation networks and patent research, has received an assistant professor of strategy position at the Indian School of Business.

Awate’s research has included an examination of wind energy in emerging markets that she co-authored with strategic management Professor Ram Mudambi, a Perelman Senior Research Fellow. During the summer of 2010, Awate studied the technological and economic impacts of wind energy by researching Indian wind-turbine company Suzlon. Awate’s comparative case analysis, published in the Global Strategy Journal, takes an in-depth look at how emerging-market multinational enterprises are catching up in knowledge-intensive emerging industries.

Awate was awarded the Ernest & Young-SKOLKOVO Institute for Emerging Market Studies grant for her work with Mudambi. She successfully defended her dissertation, on innovations in the global wind-power industry, in August and will receive her PhD in Business Administration later this year. Before joining the Fox School, Awate earned a master’s degree in interdisciplinary telecommunications from the University of Colorado, Boulder.

–Alexis Wright-Whitley

 

Why do you think you stood out from other candidates when you applied to the Indian School of Business?

They were looking for a candidate with a promising research career. I think my research agenda and output generated so far stood out among other applicants.

What are you most looking forward to?

Interacting with and teaching the top MBA students at ISB, undoubtedly the crème of the Indian student population, and of course using ISB’s excellent research resources to further my work.

What attracted you to the Fox School?

Research diversity and the very evident faculty-student collaborations.

What drew you to focus on wind-turbine energy?

India’s rising position in the alternative energy market such as wind.

What research are you currently pursuing?

I am examining alternative energy patent data to map out multidimensional innovation networks spanning inventors, technologies and geographies. 

What will you miss about Temple and Philadelphia?

I miss interacting with my friends and professors, refreshing strolls through the very lively Liacouras Walk and Bell Tower area and of course, the Art Museum and the verdant Main Line.

How would you describe the Fox PhD program to a prospective student?

This is a place of growth. The program’s strong research focus and the school’s efforts to be among the top create a very positive atmosphere for research. It’s hard not to be productive here.

 

Seeing is believing, but smellizing – a new term for prompting consumers to imagine the smell of a product – could be the next step toward more effective advertising.

Researchers came to this conclusion through four studies of products most of us would like to smellize: cookies and cake.

Professor of Marketing Maureen Morrin of Temple University’s Fox School of Business co-authored Smellizing Cookies and Salivating: A Focus on Olfactory Imagery to examine the impact imagining what a food smells like would have on consumer behavior.

“Before we started this project, we looked for print ads that asked consumers to imagine the smell of the product, and we found none,” Morrin said. “We think it’s because advertisers don’t think it’ll actually do anything.”

But researchers found that smellizing — imagining a smell —increased consumers’ desire to consume and purchase advertised food products.

Consumers’ response to advertised food products was measured over several studies that looked at the effect of smellizing on salivation, desire and actual food consumption. The researchers found that imagining what a tasty food smells like increases these types of responses only when the consumer also sees a picture of the advertised product.

Participants who looked at print advertisements were prompted by questions such as: Fancy a freshly baked cookie?; Feel like a chocolate cake?; and Feel like a freshly baked cookie? Look for these in a store near you.

Morrin found that these types of headlines had a positive impact on desire to consume the product, if they were accompanied by a call to also imagine the smell of the food. This positive impact was strongest when the image of the product could be seen at the same time study participants imagined the smell.

According to the study, olfactory imagery processing is different from that of the other senses, especially vision.

“It has been shown, for example, that although individuals can discriminate among thousands of different odors and are reasonably good at detecting odors they have smelled before, they are quite poor at identifying the odors they smell,” the study said. “That is, individuals often have difficulty stating just what it is they happen to be smelling at any particular moment, unless they can see the odor referent.”

This may be why a picture is so important in activating the effects of smellizing.

When asked (versus not being asked) to imagine a scent with a visual, participants’ salivation increased by .36 to .39 grams in two of the studies. In another study, when asked to imagine a scent with a visual, participants consumed 5.3 more grams of the advertised cookies. These effects depended on seeing the advertised food while imaging its smell.

The researchers also found that actually smelling the advertised products was even more effective on the various measures of consumer response than merely imagining the smells. But it’s not always feasible to present consumers with product odors in advertisements.

According to Morrin, advertisers are not adequately tapping into the power of the sense of smell when developing promotional messages to encourage consumers to buy their products.

Morrin’s study, co-authored with Aradhna Krishna of the University of Michigan and Eda Sayin of Koç University in Turkey, appears in the Journal of Consumer Research.

—Alexis Wright-Whitley 

Many companies and organizations have set up defenses to keep hackers on the outside, protecting the information of their customers and clients. However, with increasingly sophisticated use of malware, some hackers can sit silently within a company’s information systems for years without being detected.

A new report from the Temple University Institute for Business and Information Technology (IBIT), at the Fox School of Business, examines advanced persistent threats to information assets by using the medieval analogy of barbarians inside the gate.

In December 2013, retail chain Target announced a security breach resulting in 40 million credit and debit card records being compromised. Other retail chains such as 7-Eleven and Carrefour have also suffered attacks, having 160 million credit and debit card numbers exposed. Hackers have also targeted Nasdaq and bank accounts at Citigroup and PNC.

“My goal with the article was to raise people’s awareness, which is the most powerful tool [for security enhancement],” said Gregory Senko, associate director of the Fox School’s Master of Science in Information Technology Auditing and Cyber-Security program. “I wanted to make people aware that there is a risk and they need the proper tools to know when they are being attacked.”

While working on a book, Security Intelligence – How Big Data and Machine Learning can tackle the increasingly complex world of Cyber Security, Senko realized that the rate of persistent polymorphic attacks is growing and that more vendors are developing tools intended to address these threats.

Symantec, a leading information security company, noted the escalated rate of reported Advanced Persistent Threats (APT). In November 2013, the number of reported APT attacks increased to about 118 from only 57 in November 2012. “We’re likely to see a
big wave of aggressive attacks,” Senko said.

The Stuxnet virus in 2010-11 served as the first well-publicized appearance of a successful, state-sponsored act of modern cyber warfare. This virus inspired hackers to employ analytics, reverse engineering and code cannibalization to design malware that was able to circumvent traditional security arrangements that recognize threats as patterns in digital transmissions. This allowed hackers to penetrate networks that seemed secure,
operating stealthily over extended periods of time. These attacks are known as Advanced Persistent Threats.

Senko recommends four transformative steps to achieve even more robust enterprise security.

First, he urges companies to strengthen their fundamental security processes. This means spending money to pay for up-to-date perimeter security and employing well-educated security engineers and well-informed employees.

Second, Senko recommends companies to look at metrics used for performance management, issue identification and problem mitigation, from a more security-oriented perspective. According to the report, “this same data may yield opportunities to identify
subtle changes in activity that underlie a persistent attack.”

Third, a culture must be created that promotes information security organizations to act proactively. Procedural and structural approaches to deal with day-to-day prevention need to be set in place, versus waiting to react to emergencies.

Finally, Senko suggests companies should invest in tools such as cloud-based, Big Data-driven offerings that allow for more enhanced network performance management and improved network management.

“Companies will find this preventive approach can be expensive. But they will end up dealing with the problem sooner or later. The question is: Will spending now avoid even greater spending later if they don’t take steps to protect themselves,” Senko said.

The ongoing IBIT Report series is based on rigorous, vendor-neutral academic research that provides actionable knowledge on topics relevant to industry partners. To download Senko’s full report, visit http://ibit.temple.edu/blog/2014/02/20/barbarians-inside-the-gate-dealing-with-advanced-persistent-threats/

—Alexis Wright-Whitley

Assistant Professor Steven N. Pyser, jointly appointed to the Legal Studies and Human Resource Management departments of Temple University’s Fox School of Business, has contributed his insights on the impact of trust on business success in a new book, Trust Inc.: Strategies for Building Your Company’s Most Valuable Asset.

Trust Inc.’s editor, Barbara Brooks Kimmel — co-founder and executive director of Trust Across America-Trust Around the World — selected 30 experts to make the case for trust in the new book.

This handbook on organizational trust is divided into six sections: Why trust matters; How trust works in practice; What it takes to be a trustworthy leader; How trustworthy teams impact business; How to restore trust; and A new paradigm for organizational trust. Pyser authored the latter.

Pyser’s essay, titled, Capitalism and High Trust: Leveraging Social Worlds as Intangible Assets, was inspired by his pracademics approach — combining the works and viewpoints of academics and practitioners — as well as the applied practice and research he’s conducted in the past 15 years.

In his essay, Pyser argues that having an understanding of performance standards and a working definition of workplace trust are winning strategies required to achieve excellence in today’s global business economy.

He offers a new paradigm and structure for global capitalism and competitiveness. It requires a culture of high trust by leveraging conversations and business communications through “social worlds” and “communication perspectives” used as intangible assets.

“Being recognized for domain expertise by Trust Across America-Trust Around the World is a wonderful honor,” Pyser said. “I’m privileged to be in the esteemed company of the international expert contributors in the book.”

In discussing his essay and how to build capacities for business trust connections, he acknowledged the integral role of being Temple Made (LAW ’84) and serving on the Fox faculty at a world-class research university play in developing his theories, personal and professional successes.

Pyser said he appreciates the academic freedom and ability to innovate as a Fox professor through the continuing support of the Dean’s Office and his department chairs – in Legal Studies, Dr. Samuel D. Hodge, Jr. and in Human Resource Management, Dr. Deanna Geddes. “Their encouragement and varied course assignments have motivated my teaching, research and emerging applied practice approaches to business trust,” he said.

Pyser reserved the highest praise for his students, who “have taught him well” about the role trust plays in education, business and life. He indicated that “trust is a catalyst for learning together in community, professional growth and enhancement of transferable workforce skills.

“Fox students continue to impress me how they make things happen – especially, their commitment to academic excellence, grit, resilience and real-world readiness,” Pyer said.

Pyser is the president and founder at The Pyser Group, which specializes in ethics, leadership development, corporate governance and sustainability strategies. He is a Caux Round Table Fellow and contributes to the current work of the United Nation’s Economic and Social Council (ECOSOC) Millennium Development Goals and post-2015 Development Agenda.

Connect with Pyser via SNPyser@temple.edu, @ProfessorEthics on Twitter or www.linkedin.com/pub/steven-pyser/2/746/435 via LinkedIn.

Gaps in academic literature focusing on computer-mediated environments have been synthesized to offer potential for new research and design models.

Milton F. Stauffer Professor of Information Technology and Strategy Paul A. Pavlou, of Temple University’s Fox School of Business, and Macy’s Foundation Professor Manjit S. Yadav, of Texas A&M University, organized and synthesized academic research around four key interactions in CMEs: consumer-firm, firm-consumer, consumer-consumer and firm-firm.

Pavlou and Yadav synthesized 124 articles from four widely recognized journals — Journal of Marketing, Journal of Marketing Research, Marketing Science and Journal of Consumer Research — into specialized topics to identify gaps by juxtaposing current research with marketplace practices and emerging trends.

“Of course, in any literature, there are gaps.” Pavlou said. “This type of literature is very broad, and it’s natural for people to focus on what’s interesting and timely. That’s why there are gaps.”

Gaps found in consumer-firm interactions indicate the needs to understand that there are new shopping contexts that may be useful for categorization and research. The gaps also suggest that the structure of consumers’ shopping funnel — a large number of choices winnowed down to a final selection — needs to be examined more closely.

Furthermore, as little is known about how consumers navigate and integrate information from various types of devices and interfaces in CMEs, finer process models need to be developed, which would enhance consumer-firm interactions.

There are also gaps in theory development opportunities that affect firm-consumer interactions. In order to fill this, enhanced consumer visibility, which will allow firms to capture and detail consumers’ activities in CMEs, needs to be given a more central role in theory development. In doing so, a more integrated view can be provided of firms’ marketing activities across online and offline environments.

In terms of consumer-consumer interaction, gaps related to the growing interest in social commerce as well as the shift in the type of content generation that occurs in social networks need to be addressed. These gaps pave the way for three main avenues for theory development.

First, social commerce needs to be clarified to include purchase and non-purchase activities in social networks. Second, understanding the creation, consumption and dissemination of content in social networks should be an important priority. Third, theoretical work is needed that delineates the costs and benefits of consumers’ investments of time and effort on social media.

In order to address the gaps found in firm-firm interactions, research needs to focus more closely on concepts such as external and internal coordination that are important to transaction costs analysis and agency theory. This is because of the inter-organizational shifts due to emerging intermediaries in business-to-busines marketplaces, platform-based competition, and new types of reverse auctions.

By synthesizing literature, Pavlou and Yadav also yielded suggestions to develop methodological innovations as it pertains to new data, new designs and new models.

“Multiple parties can benefit from this research,” Pavlou said. “I see graduate students, PhD students and novices in the area getting the most benefit. It’s easier for them to read over a synthesis versus trying to synthesize over 100 papers to find gaps on their own.”

Pavlou and Yadav’s article, Marketing in Computer-Mediated Environments: Research Synthesis and New Directions, has been accepted for publication in the Journal of Marketng, an A journal.

—Alexis Wright-Whitley

The city of Philadelphia has reason to be proud: It outpaces the nation as a whole in terms of innovation connectedness. About 9 percent of patents with at least one Philadelphia-based inventor are internationally connected, compared to approximately 7 percent of patents with inventors in the United States overall. However, there is also some bad news: Philadelphia’s share of all U.S. innovative activity has dropped by half in 35 years.

A research team led by Professor of Strategic Management Ram Mudambi at Temple University’s Fox School of Business analyzed patents in the United States from 1975 to 2010 and extracted relevant data from more than 7 million observations to analyze innovation trends in the United States. To map out where inventors are located, the research team looked at all 917 geographical areas that make up the country, as defined by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget.

The top six foreign locations of inventors collaborating with Philadelphia-based colleagues are the United Kingdom, Germany, Canada, France, Japan and China, which has risen to prominence only in recent years.

Industries represented by Philadelphia-based innovative activity include chemicals, computer and communications, drugs and medical, electrical and electronics, as well as mechanical industries.

Philadelphia is the seventh-largest core based statistical area (CBSA) in the United States, and the city has a long history of innovative activity commensurate with its population size.

However, Philadelphia ranks 34th of the top 35 CBSAs in terms of growth of number of local inventors from 1975 to 2010.

Although the growth of local inventors is low, “our inventors are more connected, which is good news,“ Mudambi said. “They also collaborate with networks of inventors that are overall more internationally dispersed.”

Despite the growing trends in connectedness and total patenting that Philadelphia has experienced over the past 35 years, the share of Philadelphia’s CBSA patents as a percentage of U.S. patents has fallen from about 4.8 percent in 1975 to about 2.1 percent in 2010. In other words, Philadelphia is becoming a much smaller contributor in the national production of knowledge.

The team also noticed another worrying trend between Philadelphia and its traditional knowledge partners, such as the United Kingdom, Germany and Japan. Over a 30-year period, the number of inventors who collaborated with Philadelphia from the United Kingdom dipped from about 125 inventors to 40. Inventors from Japan and Germany also dropped by more than half. These drops could be due to the relocation of research-and-development activities by pharmaceutical and chemical firms – some of the Philadelphia region’s traditional innovative sectors.

However, there has been an increase in collaboration with China. Over two years, from 2005 to 2007, inventors from China collaborating with Philadelphia rose from about 18 to 130.

“China’s come in this huge way recently,” Mudambi said. “So we wanted to know, why China? We did a little digging and found there’s one company that accounts for much of this connectedness: Metrologic.”

Metrologic Instruments is an automated identification and data-capture company based in Blackwood, N.J. (part of the Philadelphia CBSA). The company makes barcode scanners that are used in retailing, healthcare, postal services, logistics services and other industry verticals. By operating in a variety of verticals, Metrologic innovates in a way that is resilient to shifts in the economic fortunes of individual sectors.

Metrologic holds 446 patents, with 3,189 participating inventor locations. Honeywell acquired it in 2008. According to Mudambi and his team, Metrologic represents about 70 percent of the Philadelphia CBSA’s connectedness to China.

Metrologic is one of the reasons why Philadelphia surpasses the United States in terms of innovation connectedness. Philadelphia-based inventors also collaborate with South American countries (Colombia and Chile), Africa (Botswana and Madagascar), as well as Sweden, Turkey, Syria and Australia. ­­

“Mapping the innovative connections of inventor networks gives us a picture of the dependence and linkages of a location in terms of other locations, industries and individuals,” Mudambi said.

–Alexis Wright-Whitley

The longer CEOs stay in the power – and a new study suggests most of them do, exceeding the optimal tenure length by about three years – the more likely chief executives are to limit outside sources of market and customer information, ultimately hurting firm performance.

Research titled, How does CEO tenure matter? The mediating role of firm-employee and firm-customer relationships, examines why a longer CEO tenure may not always produce positive results for firm performance.

The researchers — Charles Gilliland Professor of Marketing Xueming Luo and PhD candidate Michelle Andrews of the Fox School of Business at Temple University and PhD candidate Vamsi K. Kanuri of Robert J. Trulaske, Sr. College of Business at the University of Missouri — explored two primary stakeholders, employees and customers, who are influenced by CEO tenure.

From studying 365 U.S. companies over a decade (2000-10), measuring CEO tenure, and calculating the strength of both firm-employee and firm-customer relationships, researchers found that the longer a CEO serves, the stronger the firm-employee relationship becomes. However, an extended period with the same CEO results in a weakened firm-customer relationship over time.

According to the study, the average CEO holds office for 7.6 years, but the optimal tenure length is 4.8 years.

“As CEOs accumulate knowledge and become entrenched, they rely more on their internal networks – employees – for information, growing less attuned to market conditions and customers,” Luo said. “And because these longer-tenured CEOs have more invested in the firm, they favor avoiding losses over pursuing gains. Their attachment to the status quo makes them less responsive to vacillating consumer preferences.”

There are two types of learning styles CEOs adopt during their tenure: explorative and exploitive learning via external and internal information sources.

In the early stages of tenure, CEOs demonstrate a desire for a diverse flow of information and engage in receiving information from both external and internal company sources. Therefore, firm relationship between employees and customers is positive.

However, as CEOs become more knowledgeable and serve for a longer period, they begin to focus on the flow of information from internal sources versus what comes from outside markets. This is in large part due to longer-tenured CEOs becoming more risk averse because of all they have invested in their firm. This leads chief executives to resist challenging the status quo, further alienating them from market environments and weakening customer relations. Ultimately, this hurts firm performance.

“We’re not saying, ‘Fire your CEOs after 4.8 years,’” Andrews said in regard to the weakened relationship with customers after what researchers found to be the optimal tenure length. “But if company boards restructure CEO packages to cater to consumers more, you may find yourself with better results.”

If boards develop incentive plans for longer-tenured CEOs to encourage more reliance on external market trends and dynamics, customer relations – and therefore firm performance – could be enhanced.

“After all, you’re only a firm if you have customers,” Andrews said. “Without customers, no firm can prosper – or even survive.”

The full study appears online in the Strategic Management Journal.

—Alexis Wright-Whitley