Making decisions is a central human activity that is fundamental to the life of individuals, organizations and society. What car you choose to purchase, what person you choose to marry, what politician you vote for, where you chose to invest—all of these are important decisions that affect your life. There are hundreds of books on the market offering advice on decision-making strategies. However, the more fundamental (and ultimately more essential) question is: what is your brain actually doing when you make a decision? And what more can we learn about decision-making by looking under the hood and into the brain? Answers to these questions have far-reaching implications for all aspects of our society.