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Dr. Aubrey Kent
Dr. Aubrey Kent

Dr. Aubrey Kent, Chair of Temple University’s School of Tourism and Hospitality Management (STHM) and founding director of Temple’s Sport Industry Research Center (SIRC), is the winner of the 2016 North American Society for Sport Management Garth Paton Distinguished Service Award.

The award, the highest service honor within NASSM, recognizes a member with outstanding dedication to the promotion and growth of the sport management industry. Kent, a NASSM member for more than 20 years, credited the organization for providing him with exceptional mentors, including Paton, for whom the award is named.

“Garth was one of my mentors and a dear, dear man. It is special to receive this honor,” said Kent, Professor of Sport Management at STHM.

Kent’s commitment to the NASSM is strong. A past president of the organization, he helped establish the Janet B. Parks NASSM Research Grant, awarded at NASSM’s annual conference, as well as the Commission of Sport Management Association (COSMA) inaugural board of directors, which is dedicated to sport management education at the collegiate level.

Kent received the NASSM Student Research Award five years after joining the organization as a graduate student at Canada’s University of Windsor. In deepening his NASSM involvement, he served on several student committees and, in 2006, was recognized as a Research Fellow. He followed up that recognition with a highly successful stint as an Executive Board Member-at-large, which included several chairpersonships across various committees.

During his tenure, Kent has served on the editorial board for NASSM’s Journal of Sport Management, the leading academic journal in the field. He also has published more than 10 peer-reviewed articles within the journal.

“NASSM promotes the field, facilitates scholarships, and brings together academics to trade best practice ideas around teaching and research,” Kent said.

Kent will receive the Paton Award this June at the 2016 NASSM conference, to be held in Orlando, Fla.

The School of Tourism and Hospitality Management’s (STHM) Sport Industry and Research Center (SIRC) continues to extend itself in innovation and sport management.

SIRC has entered a strategic partnership with Appventures GmbH, a Swiss software developer, to drive fan research, improve fan segmentation and employ social media games to activate fans for leading sports leagues and teams.

Appventures specifically contacted STHM Assistant Professor Thilo Kunkel to help expand its mobile application. “They knew of our research, because Temple has such a huge name and brand Kunkel said.

Appventures’ sports fan engagement mobile app, ARENOO, allows sports fans to access the latest news of their favorite team and gives them the opportunity to earn points and prizes, by completing quizzes, checking in at a game, or playing as a team. Earning points and advancing in the fan leadership board leads to winning prizes, such as discounts on club merchandise or food at stadiums.

The app is currently only geared towards European soccer fans, but Kunkel said that he and those at SIRC hope the Swiss developer to have a US-based partner by the end of 2014.

Kunkel considers this venture a form of “gamified” consumer engagement, as market activities are being turned into games, where users can earn points for their engagement activities. He believes this is a hot topic in marketing, especially sports management.

Through the partnership, both SIRC and Appventures aim to examine how digital fan games engage fans, create a stronger bond with their favorite sport and improve the overall fan experience.

“ SIRC will basically conduct the research,” Kunkell said. “That means looking at consumer data, fan behavior and fan engagement with the team.”

According to Kunkel, this new partnership will be a long, ongoing relationship.

“This opportunity really puts STHM on the map,” Kunkel said. “We want to be recognized as one of the leaders in new technology. This will definitely help the school.”

— Alexis Wright-Whitley

Second-year PhD student Christine Wegner recently won the North American Society for Sport Management’s (NASSM) 2014 Student Research Competition.

NASSM strives to promote, stimulate, and encourage study, research, scholarly writing, and professional development in the area of sport management — both theoretical and applied aspects.

Wegner’s winning paper, titled Black Girls Run: Identity Creation Within a National Running Group for Black Women, was based on a survey conducted by the School of Tourism Hospitality Management’s (STHM) Sport Industry Research Center’s (SIRC) in February 2013 on members of Black Girls Run!, an organization that aims to fight obesity by promoting healthy lifestyles and running events among African-American women. Wegner studied how members of Black Girl Run! identify with the organization and with running and how the identifications changed over time.

She found that the longer women remained in the organization, the more strongly they identified with it, just as they identified as runners, as they began to run more outside of Black Girls Run.

NASSM’s Student Paper Review Committee evaluated each submission through a blind review process based on relevance or significance of the topic, theoretical bases, methodology, discussion and interpretation, and clarity of writing.

“I think that my research is important,” Wegner said. “I’m glad that it can be shared with others at this level, because it’s something that has to get out there.”

Wegner’s area of research focuses on organizational identity formation and the utilization of sport for social change on a contextual level. She has also worked with other organizations through SIRC, such as Students Run Philly Style, which trains students to run half or full marathons and strives to reduce rates of obesity, decrease juvenile delinquency and improve students’ school attendance and academic performance.

“Looking back, I can see ways in which the program has improved my skill set,” Wegner said. “Both STHM and the Fox School have been very supportive.”

The Fox and STHM Young Scholars Forum initially funded the project on which Wegner’s paper is based. Wegner also received grant funding from Texas A&M.

Prior to joining STHM, Wegner received her MS in Education from Brooklyn College and her BA in Latin from Vassar College.

— Alexis Wright-Whitley


Human beings are constantly engaging the five senses. But how does this sensory experience impact a consumer’s choice behavior?

This question was explored at the Fox School of Business’ first-ever sensory marketing conference, Understanding the Customer’s Sensory Experience. The conference was held on June 5th and 6th, at Alter Hall, home of Temple University’s Fox School of Business and School of Tourism and Hospitality Management.

The conference focused on the nature of the five human senses, their role in affecting consumer behavior and emotion, and their application within a range of settings, including product and service design.

Fox School of Business marketing professor Maureen Morrin and School of Tourism and Hospitality Management professor Daniel Fesenmaier co-hosted the event.

Attendees included marketing and tourism research experts, doctoral students studying within these disciplines, executives of marketing firms, and industry professionals responsible for developing and improving the consumer experience.

“One of the main goals was to bring together both academics and practitioners who are interested in sensory marketing,” Morrin, Director of the Fox School of Business’ Consumer Sensory Innovation Lab, said. “Just getting industry professionals involved and having them see what we’re working on and researching, and to see what their problems are, I think, is helpful.”

At least one conference attendee plans to take advantage of the partnerships the conference established.

“It was extremely stimulating to bring together academics, people from [the] industry and specialists within each category,” Stephen Gould, a marketing professor at Baruch College, said. “As a professor, I plan to follow up with at least one of the industry presenters who I met at the conference.”

The conference was sponsored by the Fox School of Business, the Department of Marketing and Supply Chain Management, and the National Laboratory for Tourism and eCommerce.

Events included a corporate panel led by executives from firms including Mane USA, Scents Marketing, ScentAir, and HCD Research. Another panel, composed of academic research laboratory directors, led discussions on how they established, operate, and fund their laboratories.  Numerous research presentations were given, with topics ranging from multisensory processing, to product and packaging development.

Conference attendees left with many new ideas, thanks to the different perspectives offered by the presenters. Adriana Madzharov, of the Stevens Institute of Technology, felt that the combination of research presentations, corporate panels, and research laboratory discussions offered a unique and fulfilling experience.

“The conference presented a perfect combination and balance between these three very different approaches to studying sensory customer experiences,” Madzharov said. “Personally, the amount of knowledge and valuable contacts that I acquired in such a short time during the conference makes it for me the best professional experience so far.”

Megan Whelan

Temple University School of Tourism and Hospitality Management (STHM) Professor Daniel C. Funk recently received the Research Fellow Award from the Sport Marketing Association (SMA) for excellence in the area of sport marketing research.

The work Funk disseminated through SMA and Sport Marketing Quarterly (SMQ), SMA’s official journal, was honored at SMA’s conference in Albuquerque, N.M., on Oct. 23-26.

Funk stood out as a distinctive SMA member who encourages high standards of research and other forms of scholarship among SMA’s members. He has participated in nearly 20 grant-funded projects, has written a refereed scholarly book, an industry book and a sport marketing textbook, numerous book chapters, and has authored or contributed to more than 80 articles published in a variety of top journals. He was also recently appointed editor of SMQ.

 “Being named a research fellow by the Sport Marketing Association was a great honor,” Funk said. “This year was the inaugural class of SMA research fellows with six other faculty members from across the United States receiving the award. It was a privilege to be selected and receive the award at the national conference alongside some of the best sport marketing researchers in the field.”

 Funk’s research and consultancies focus on understanding factors that explain consumer involvement and behavior in order to improve internal and external marketing functions.  His research offers marketing and management solutions to businesses, communities and government agencies that provide sport, recreation and tourism services and products.

Funk, a professor of sport and recreation management, is a Washburn Senior Research Fellow and director for research and PhD programs at STHM. He is also a member of Temple’s Sport Industry Research Center. Funk holds appointments with the Griffith Business School in Australia, the University of Pretoria’s Gordon Institute of Business Science in South Africa and the Faculty of Educational Services at the University Putra Malaysia in Malaysia.

–Alexis Wright-Whitley


ProfessorDaniel R. Fesenmaier, called “without peer among the currently active researchers in tourism,” has received the Lifetime Achievement Award from the international Travel and Tourism Research Association (TTRA).

Fesenmaier, who is director of the National Laboratory for Tourism and eCommerce, was given the honor at TTRA’s annual conference in June in Kansas City.

Fesenmaier has authored more than 110 refereed research articles in top-tier journals, 120 book chapters and conference proceedings, and edited 10 books, monographs and proceedings. He has served as principal or co-principal investigator for more than 100 funded projects totaling nearly $7 million and continues to lead national research that monitors how technology shapes the ways Americans travel, in addition to involvement with a variety of international initiatives.

“He has been and continues to be one of the leading minds on the applications of information technology to tourism marketing,” wrote nominators TTRA President Richard R. Perdue of Virginia Tech; Pauline Sheldon, professor emeritus of the University of Hawaii; and Mitch Nichols, president and CEO of Nichols Tourism Group. “His work on Internet technologies, the design and evaluation of web-based tourism marketing, and destination marketing strategy is the very best body of work on these critical topics.”

Fesenmaier’s colleagues widely credit him for his strong work ethic and his commitment to using much of the grant money he receives to support the education and research of graduate students, whom he mentors closely.

In their nomination letter, Perdue and colleagues said Fesenmaier has chaired 44 graduate student committees and that many of his students have “gone on to become major contributors to our tourism research,” including seven who have been appointed to the editorial board of the TTRA-published Journal of Travel Research (JTR), the premier journal focusing on travel and tourism behavior, management and development.

“I have a passion for ideas that help in understanding and solving problems, and I enjoy very much in bringing together the greatness of the university with the ingenuity of the professionals in tourism and the challenges facing the industry,” Fesenmaier said. “I have had a number of really great masters and PhD students who have made me look good. I would like to thank each of them for trusting me and including me in their lives. Without a doubt, they are the reason I am here today.”

In addition to his contributions to the academic and business communities in tourism, Fesenmaier has had extensive involvement with TTRA, including serving on the JTR editorial board for the past 20 years, serving as editor for the JTR Foundations in Tourism Research series and currently serving on the organization’s board of directors.

This is Fesenmaier’s second lifetime achievement award in recent months. He also received the International Federation for IT and Travel & Tourism’s Hannes Werthner Tourism and Technology Lifetime Achievement Award.

In addition, Fesenmaier and PhD student Jason L. Stienmetz recently received an Excellent Paper Award at the 2013 TOSOK International Tourism Conference in Seoul, Korea. Their co-authored paper, “Traveling the Network: A Proposal for New Destination Performance Metrics,” will be published in the International Journal of Tourism Sciences.

–Brandon Lausch

Sport and Recreation Management Associate Professor Joris Drayer of the School of Tourism and Hospitality Management won the Best Paper award – his second in four years – at the 2013 Sport Marketing Association (SMA) conference, held Oct. 23-26 in Albuquerque, N.M.

Drayer wrote Examining the Role of Fairness in Sport Consumer Ticket Purchases with Assistant Professor Stephen L. Shapiro of Old Dominion University and Assistant Professor Brendan Dwyer of Virginia Commonwealth University. The team also won the Best Paper award from SMA in 2010, selected from 130 submissions worldwide.

“When we won the award a few years ago, it was a total surprise and something that, as a young faculty member, you don’t expect,” Drayer said. “Now, having been a finalist two years ago and winning it again this year, it really validates the quality of the work that we’re doing. It’s such an honor to work with those guys, and it’s a great example of the whole being greater than the sum of its parts.”

The winning paper examines the relationship among various ticket price offers, market, price fluctuations, perceived fairness, and intentions to purchase Major League Baseball tickets.

“It has been argued that consumer perceptions of fairness regarding real-time ticket price fluctuations, such as dynamic ticket pricing (DTP), could influence purchase decisions,” Drayer and his team mentioned in the paper.

Familiarity with DTP and ticket resale in the secondary market was also examined to identify potential moderating effects on perceptions of fairness and purchase intentions.

The research team, through a partnership with the Philadelphia Daily News, had access to a panel of 2,566 Philadelphia-area sports fans. Of those sports fans, 505 participants returned surveys after the study was conducted.

The team found that respondents with different offer price scenarios significantly differ regarding how fair they believe the offer to be, and they differ in their purchase intentions. This ultimately suggests that consumer perceptions of price fairness change based on pricing strategies, and attitudes based on information provided in a transaction could prevent consumers from maximizing utility.

The findings of the paper could be used to help sport organizations understand the impact of ticket price changes.

Drayer has written two book chapters and published more than 30 articles in numerous journals — including Sport Management Review, Sport Marketing Quarterly and the Journal of Sport Management. He co-authored another paper about dynamic ticketing pricing strategies, which has recently been accepted in Sport Management Review.

Drayer is a member of the North American Society for Sport Management and the Sport Marketing Association and has presented at more than 20 national and international sport industry conferences.

—Alexis Wright-Whitley

School of Tourism and Hospitality Management Associate Professor Joel G. Maxcy and University of Oklahoma Department of Health and Exercise Science Lecturer Daniel J. Larson recently published an article titled “The industrial organization of sport coaches: Road cycling as a distinguished case” in the Journal of Sport Management.

The September 2013 paper presents a theoretical model of the organization of the sport coaching industry. It is the first study to show in formal mathematical expressions how coaches are appropriated into the employment settings of sports teams. The model, based on a variety of considered sport characteristics, predicts whether the individual athlete or the sport organization will be the direct employer of coaches. The example of professional cycling coaches is presented at length and offers empirical evidence that is consistent with the model’s predictions. Other sports settings are discussed within the paper as well.

“This work stemmed from my simple observation of the cycling coaching market, where commercially well developed teams hired almost no ‘team’ coaches, and instead the cyclists hired their coaches independently,” Larson said. “When I examined this further, it became clear that there was very little research on the overall industrial organization of coaches, let alone a theory to explain these interesting outcomes.”

Maxcy, who served as Larson’s PhD advisor at the University of Georgia, was eager to lend his expertise to this project. According to Maxcy, who has made numerous contributions in this area, the literature on industrial organization of team-sport leagues and player labor markets is quite well developed in sports economics. Nonetheless, the coaching industry, a significant part of sports, had not been modeled.

“Dan’s experience as a cycling athlete and coach provided a significant intuitive dimension that greatly helped facilitate the formal modeling process,” Maxcy said.

Larson also explained that this research could lead to improved models of the coaching industry as well as empirical tests of the theory. He said that it could be a particularly useful start for examining consulting and external training services in broader industrial settings where coached employees also work within teams.

Maxcy said that a critical contribution of this work is separating the coaches’ roles into trainer and strategist components. “In most sports, one role or the other dominates the coach’s task list, and the integration of the two roles goes a long way in the determination of the employment relationship,” he said.

Larson’s research background is largely comprised of the study of economics and marketing of competitive cycling. These endeavors were preceded by substantial work experience in cycling coaching and international professional cycling team management.

Maxcy has an extensive research background in sport labor relations and industrial organization. His related past publications include articles that have examined issues such as free agency, contract length, and compensation in professional sport.

Aubrey Kent, chair of Temple University’s School of Tourism and Hospitality Management and founder of the Sport Industry Research Center (SIRC), knows that in a resource-constrained environment, community organizations often struggle with the day-to-day.

Kent recently served as a facilitator of the Beyond Sport Summit’s Urban Communities Symposium, a full-day event to discuss how sport can address youth violence in Philadelphia.

The Sept. 10 symposium, at the Lowes Hotel, attracted attendees from different areas of the world — from Philadelphia to Chicago to the United Kingdom — as well as from a variety of organizations, including the Philadelphia Mayor’s Office, Philadelphia Police Athletic League (PAL), Eagles Youth Partnership and others.

Kent urged attendees to work with one another to gather resources and engage in “long-term strategic planning.

“We face all of these common challenges, and it’s really daunting when we’re in our office on our own, not realizing that there are many other stakeholders – and others who do so much like us,” Kent said. “We need to learn from each other’s challenges and mistakes and know that we’re not in it alone and in some ways make partnerships strategically to get ideas.”

SIRC has done just that.

Founded in 2008, SIRC, serving as a collaborative research network, has provided opportunities for academics, students and professionals to explore how sport positively impacts communities.

Much of the center’s work has been applied to research collaborations with groups and organizations focused on youth, such as Arthur Ashe Youth Tennis and Education, the Starfinder Foundation for youth soccer, and Students Run Philly Style, a mentorship program that uses marathon training to help youth succeed in life. Students Run Philly Style, a strong SIRC partner, won the Barclays Philadelphia Impact Award at the Beyond Sport Summit, which the School of Tourism and Hospitality Management sponsored. Students also volunteered at the summit.

Before its partnership with SIRC, founders of Students Run Philly Style understood what kind of impact they wanted to have on the youth they served but were only able to provide anecdotes to explain the organization’s life-changing power.

Through research on the correlation between running and positive academic outcomes, increased self-esteem and other metrics, SIRC uncovered data that supported the organization’s efforts. SIRC Director Jeremy S. Jordan plays a leading role in the research partnership with Students Run Philly Style.

Although SIRC provides research to nonprofits, Kent highlighted why such organizations should continually strive to obtain resources on their own.

“I encourage those of you who work or volunteer in these organizations to push for resources to enable you to focus on the long-term, which allows you to articulate to your staff why you are doing the day-to-day,” Kent said. –Alexis Wright-Whitley

Analytics has rapidly integrated into the sport industry to optimize scheduling, assist with resource allocation, and examine the legal environment within sports organizations.

A new report from the Temple University Institute for Business and Information Technology (IBIT), based at the Fox School of Business, examines the history and current state of analytics and Big Data in sports.

The report focuses on two main areas. The first is analysis of competition, which includes player evaluation and strategy and game management. The second is analytics that aid management of business and financial issues — this can include marketing, but that is simply a narrow part of the whole.

The paper is co-authored by Associate Professors Joris Drayer and Joel Maxcy, both faculty in Temple’s School of Tourism and Hospitality Management. The report begins with the history of sports analytics and the founding of Sabermetrics, pioneered by Bill James. Sabermetrics produced cutting-edge statistical evaluations of sports players’ performance, starting with baseball.

Today, Major League Baseball (MLB) employs the most analytics professionals, with 97 percent of teams employing these professionals. Eighty percent of National Basketball Association (NBA) teams employ analytics professionals, as 56 percent of the National Football League (NFL) and 23 percent of the National Hockey League (NHL) do.

The report also includes two case studies. One explores the dynamic pricing of sports tickets, and the second discusses a system for combining GPS technology with highly sophisticated analytics to monitor athletes under game and practice conditions.

According to the report, the San Francisco Giants, along with technology partner Qcue, introduced dynamic ticket pricing (DTP) in 2009. The Giants were alone in their venture as recently as 2010, but now most MLB teams use some form of DTP. NBA and NHL teams are also rapidly implementing these strategies.

Determinants of ticket price are related to variables including: season ticket price, secondary market price, seat location, team performance, individual players’ performance, time and day of game, and game broadcasting.

The use of dynamic pricing has also spread to restaurants, movie theaters and the performing arts.

Catapult, based in Australia, developed the GPS system and data analysis algorithms in 2006. As of 2013, their client list includes more than 300 sports organizations globally.

“The system’s primary function is to monitor players’ movements and effort to ensure each player is optimally fit and trained without being overworked,” the report states.

A system such Catapult derives its analysis from three categories: performance analysis, injury analysis and tactical analysis. It works by attaching a small monitoring device to the back of a player’s jersey. Then the performance parameters are wirelessly uploaded to mobile computing devices or cloud-based software.

“The neat thing about this topic is that it’s of interest to any sports fan,” Drayer said. “Fantasy sports fans, for instance, are into numbers, and the rise of analytics gives fans access to more information.”

Though the report is of interest of sports fans and admirers, the basic premise of the applications mentioned is relevant to the general business community.

The full report is available at

Gregory L. DeShields, managing director of business development for Temple University’s Fox School of Business and School of Tourism and Hospitality Management, has been recognized as a 2013 Minority Business Leader by the Philadelphia Business Journal.

Judges for the newspaper’s annual Minority Business Leader Awards selected 27 minority business leaders or advocates to be honored in the Greater Philadelphia region. Temple is represented by two honorees: DeShields and Dr. Selwyn O. Rogers Jr., professor and chair of the Department of Surgery at Temple University School of Medicine and surgeon-in-chief of Temple University Health System.

Greg DeShields

“It is an incredible honor to receive this prestigious award and to be recognized among some of the most distinguished business leaders in our region,” DeShields said. “I sincerely appreciate the opportunity to engage with the regional and national business community every day in support of the educational initiatives offered by the Fox School and School of Tourism and Hospitality Management.”

As managing director of business development, DeShields cultivates corporate relationships that align with the schools’ missions and visions, and he strategically increases the visibility and engagement of the Fox School of Business and School of Tourism and Hospitality Management within the business community. He works within the Fox School’s Center for Student Professional Development (CSPD).

A Temple University employee for 12 years, DeShields has served as a senior administrator and adjunct faculty member. He has helped establish five endowed scholarships; secured corporate funding for student professional development; attracted high-profile guest speakers; sourced business-solution and industry-project opportunities for centers, institutes and faculty; and strengthened various industry connections.
Before joining Temple, DeShields served as a manager in the hospitality industry for such companies as Hyatt Hotel, Omni Hotels, Sheraton Hotels, Korman Communities and Philadelphia Opportunities Industrialization Center’s Opportunities Inn: Hospitality Training Institute.“Greg is resilient, demonstrates the highest level of professionalism and has superb relationship-management skills,” said M. Moshe Porat, dean of the Fox School of Business and School of Tourism and Hospitality Management. “His innovative approach to projects and unstoppable energy continue to strengthen our schools’ close ties to industry.”

His board membership and committee chairs include the American Hotel & Lodging Association (AH&LA) Multicultural Diversity Advisory Council, Center City Proprietors Association, Communities in Schools of Philadelphia, Philadelphia Academies Inc., Philadelphia Convention & Visitors Bureau Multicultural Affairs Congress, Skal International, COMHAR and the Greater Philadelphia Hispanic Chamber of Commerce.

A certified hospitality educator by the AH&LA, DeShields’ other honors and awards include the 2013 Fox School of Business Administrative Service Award and the 2012 School of Tourism and Hospitality Management Outstanding Service Award.

The Philadelphia Business Journal and presenting sponsor Wells Fargo will host the Minority Business Leader Awards program the morning of Thursday, Aug. 8, at the Wannamaker Building and profile the honorees in a special print supplement the next day.

In 2010, Eustace Kangaju, executive director of the Temple Small Business Development Center, an outreach center of the Fox School of Business, was recognized as a Philadelphia Business Journal Minority Business Advocate.

For a photo gallery of this year’s winners, visit

The Fox School of Business is replacing the stairs leading to Alter Hall from Liacouras Walk to improve safety at the building’s main entrance.

The concrete steps on Liacouras Walk are being replaced with new granite stairs that will be less steep and will include an additional landing, which should greatly improve safety, especially at the change of classes.

A review of the steps was triggered by comments about their steepness. Also, observations were made at the change of classes that there was not enough space on the landing at the top of the stairs to accommodate a large number of students exiting the building at the same time. There are approximately 7,700 students, 200 faculty and 100 administrators, as well as many guests, in the Fox School of Business and School of Tourism and Hospitality Management.

The $400,000 to fund the project came from carry-over resources at the end of the previous academic year due to staff vacancies.

The project began May 21 and is expected to conclude in mid-August. During construction, the Speakman Hall entrance on the Liacouras Walk side of the building is open, and a security guard is present. The Alter Hall handicap ramp has been temporarily relocated to the northwest corner of Speakman Hall.

Planning and Design - Alter Hall

Travel Behavior Information and communication technology has developed rapidly over the past few years and, in turn, has revolutionized the way travelers use the internet and the very nature of the Tourism Market. Because technology has developed sufficiently such that it has substantially changed the nature of travel itself, researchers have been redesigning the models that predict behavior and business strategy. This presentations discusses some of these transformations and their implications for the tourism industry and more importantly, for future research in travel behavior.