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Soojung Han
Soojung Han

“Most research projects in my field take a couple years, during which we go through a continuous process of testing, learning, and refining ideas that will ultimately make it into the paper.” Making it onto paper is exactly what Fox School of Business PhD student, Soojung Han, has been able to achieve in her distinguished field, Human Resources Management and Organizational Behavior. Han has been able to seize her opportunities to the fullest and continues to be an example of what Fox has to offer.

Han who has not has just one, but three papers accepted this summer, is pleased to be in the company of a school and department that is determined to bring the ultimate best out of its students. “Everything about Fox is designed to allow students the opportunity to focus wholly on producing research,” Han said.

Being in an environment that offers a strong support system has allowed Han to collaborate with faculty members and develop new material, while learning to reach agreements and ultimately find the best solutions. “The faculty here are especially top-notch. My mentor and co-author, Dr. Crystal Harold (Paul Anderson Research Fellow) not only trains me in producing quality research, but also takes a personal interest in my professional future,” Han explained.

Although Han has had experience with faculty here at Fox, she continues to broaden her research activity with other collaborators. She recently co-authored with students from various institutions, “How I Get My Way. A Meta-Analytic Review of Research on Influence Tactics,” which was published in the Leadership Quarterly. This particular paper investigates the moderating effectiveness of 11 influence tactics between supervisors and subordinates, and how this relationship responds to these various directions.

“Our results indicate that certain influence tactics could be more effective than others. However, it should be noticed that the effective strategies do not always guarantee good outcomes. Thus, understanding the relative differences on outcomes can guide individuals to select and use appropriate tactics to achieve their goals at the workplace,” Han said. The meta-analysis aspect of the research has allowed Han and her co-authors to delve deeper beyond the typically inconsistent results concerning this study.

“I am grateful to have had the opportunity to work with such talented people on these projects, and I’m glad we have positive results to show for our efforts. I feel that the sense of accomplishment from these endeavors will further drive me to achieve in my future research work.” Han is in her 3rd year within the HROB department and with over four years of industry experience, she continues to make a mark for herself here at Temple’s Fox School of Business.

Sarah Diomande, SMC ‘18

Tips for upping your salary
The monthly periodical spoke with Dr. Crystal Harold, Associate Professor of Human Resource Management, for an article on how to increase your salary. Dr. Harold’s suggestion? Don’t accept the first offer.

Leading the way, through charity
Student-organized events in the “The Leadership Experience” course directed by Dr. Crystal Harold, Associate Professor of Human Resource Management, have garnered plenty of media attention – particularly a 4-on-4 basketball tournament supporting the family of fallen Philadelphia Police Officer Robert Wilson III. The Temple News also interviewed one of Dr. Harold’s students for a story.

Leading the way
Dr. Crystal Harold’s course “Honors: The Leadership Experience” requires students to organize an event to benefit a nonprofit or charitable cause. One of the groups in this semester’s course has organized an April 17 basketball tournament between Temple Police and Temple students to improve student-police relationships. Additionally, proceeds from the event will support the family of fallen Philadelphia Police Officer Robert Wilson III. CBS 3 spoke with Harold, Associate Professor of Human Resource Management, for a story, and one of her students was featured in a podcast. WHYY NewsWorks also published a story about the fundraiser.

Ask people to describe the quintessential leader and it’s unlikely you will hear the word “passive.”

One reason that passivity and leadership are not equated is that a passive manager can cause a host of problems. According to researchers at Temple University’s Fox School of Business, one such problem is the increase of workplace incivility, with docile managers at the root of these occurrences.

In their paper, “The Effects of Passive Leadership on Workplace Incivility,” Assistant Professor and Cigna Research Fellow Crystal Harold and Assistant Professor Brian Holtz write that passive managers both directly and indirectly influence the amount of workplace incivility employees will experience.

“We were interested in studying workplace incivility and, more specifically, factors that might promote the occurrence of incivility,” Harold said, “because, let’s face it – just about everyone has either been treated rudely at work, treated someone else rudely at work, or both. There are people out there who likely think that these sorts of behaviors are fairly innocuous, but available data would suggest otherwise.”

Harold and Holtz’s research has broad implications. A recent poll, conducted by Georgetown University researchers Christine Porath and Christine Pearson in a 2013 article, “The Price of Incivility,” suggests that 98 percent of North American employees have experienced incivility in the workplace. Incivility covers behaviors ranging from eye-rolling to checking emails during a meeting, and while these behaviors may seem innocuous, incivility in the workplace takes a toll.

Prior incivility research, upon which Harold and Holtz drew for their paper, which is in press at the Journal of Organizational Behavior, indicates that those who experience incivility have intentionally decreased their work effort and the quality of their work. Incivility has been shown to have a negative impact on job satisfaction, physical and mental well-being and turnover.

It is not only employees who are impacted by incivility. Managers of Fortune 1000 companies report spending 13 percent of their time addressing the consequences of instances of incivility, according to the paper by Porath and Pearson.

“Because incivility has negative psychological and physical effects on victims and is costly for organizations, it is important that we begin to understand why incivility occurs in the first place. What conditions foster an uncivil work environment?” Holtz said. “It made sense to us that leadership would be an important and significant variable to consider.”

Harold and Holtz conducted two studies in which they surveyed employees, as well as their co-workers and supervisors, to determine the role played by passive management in workplace incivility. The studies found a positive relationship between passive leadership and experienced incivility. In addition, the results indicate that employees who experience incivility are more likely to behave indecently themselves.

“We found that the experience of being treated with incivility coupled with working for a passive manager significantly increased the likelihood that an employee would both behave with incivility, as well as engage in withdrawal behaviors such as showing up to work late, or even calling out when not actually sick,” Holtz said. “The bottom line is that in the process of doing nothing, these types of managers are actually doing a lot of damage.”

Since those who experience incivility in the workplace display increased levels of behavioral incivility, Harold and Holtz found that passive managers may indirectly foster a workplace culture where employees feel that it is okay to behave rudely toward co-workers. In light of their findings, the research paper’s co-authors offered advice to organizations that wish to diminish instances of workplace incivility.

“First, you have to educate your employees and management that these seemingly harmless behaviors are anything but,” Harold said. “Training employees, and importantly managers, to recognize what incivility is, is an important first step.”

Added Holtz: “Make clear which behaviors constitute incivility, clarify the consequences for engaging in these behaviors, and adopt a zero-tolerance policy. This is where managerial training comes into play. Managers must learn to intervene when employees are behaving badly toward one another and quickly take punitive action against offenders.”

The responsibility rests with the manager to set a good example, according to Harold. Employees frequently take behavioral cues from supervisors and therefore, a manager’s actions can have unintended consequences.

“A company’s efforts to curb rudeness will be for naught if the manager is the one instigating the incivility,” Harold concluded.

Media Contact: Michelle Syen, AIS communications director, email, 404-760-4240


The Association for Information Systems (AIS) is collaborating with the Institute for Business and Information Technology (IBIT) at Temple University’s Fox School of Business on an annual job index for the field of information systems. This report, which will include pay scales and career prospect information, is intended to become the first reliable indicator of the growth of the discipline and profession.

“This partnership and initiative is an important part of the overall IS branding campaign being undertaken for the association,” said AIS President Dov Te’eni. “Those of us who have been working in the field are privy to its exciting career prospects, and this index will be a useful measurement of the bright future for those entering the field as students, academics or professionals. We are excited to work with Temple University on this endeavor, whose expertise in researching and developing this report will be integral to its success.”

“The IS job market – enrollment, placement, available jobs – is today very hard to assess. We plan to address this problem by producing a systematic annual assessment of the IS labor market,” said Munir Mandviwalla, IBIT executive director and chair of Fox’s Department of Management Information Systems (MIS). Mandviwalla is part of the project team with Fox professors Paul Pavlou and Crystal Harold. “We are pleased to partner with AIS and offer our services to the IS community.”      

AIS is a professional organization whose purpose is to serve as the premier global organization for academics, students and professionals specializing in information systems. For more information, visit www.aisnet.org.

Scholars who have been on the academic market know the competition for tenure-track jobs is fierce. But what they usually don’t realize is that there is still room to negotiate if they are offered a position. Crystal M. Harold, an assistant professor of human resource management at Temple’s Fox School of Business, co-wrote a paper examining negotiation tactics. Harold says a more collaborative strategy—which also resulted in salary increases for many people in her study—is a smart move in this economy. “You lay out what you want and let them know that you understand that times are tough,” she said. “Then the negotiator gives a little bit, and the organization gives a little bit. You feel better about the outcome, and so do they.”

 

A study of the negotiating strategies of new employees suggests that the best deal is the most well-rounded one. Those who are willing to collaborate with their new employer and sacrifice some monetary compensation for non-salary benefits felt better about the outcome and their role at the company. They also gained in other ways. “When they collaborate, they raise their salary a bit; get some non-salary benefits like more vacation, better healthcare, or help with education expenses; and walk away thinking it’s a win-win,” says one of the study’s co-authors, Crystal Harold, an assistant professor at Temple University’s Fox School of Business.

http://www.strategy-business.com/article/11115?gko=f225b

Feb. 22, 2011

A study of the negotiating strategies of new employees suggests that the best deal is the most well-rounded one. Those who are willing to collaborate with their new employer and sacrifice some monetary compensation for non-salary benefits felt better about the outcome and their role at the company. They also gained in other ways. “When they collaborate, they raise their salary a bit; get some non-salary benefits like more vacation, better healthcare, or help with education expenses; and walk away thinking it’s a win-win,” says one of the study’s co-authors, Crystal Harold, an assistant professor at Temple University’s Fox School of Business.

Continue to Strategy & Business to read more…

Dec. 30, 2010

Researchers found the most effective strategies for securing a bigger salary were to be assertive and “not take no for an answer.” Employees who had done their homework in advance of negotiations also earned themselves more benefits, according to a study from the Fox School of Business and George Mason University. “Our results suggest (workers) who were more prepared for the negotiation process were able to use more assertive strategies,” said Crystal Harold, the study’s co-author. “By prepared, I mean those who learned more about the market value of their position, did their homework on the organization and perhaps inquired about previous offers made about the organization. These individuals were empowered and were generally more assertive.”

Continue reading more at The Telegraph

Oct. 20-24, 2010

Researchers at Temple and George Mason universities recently uncovered what they say are the most effective strategies to negotiating a bigger salary. The study also found that while men and women were equally likely to negotiate, women were less effective at raising their salaries when compared to men. According to Crystal Harold, assistant professor at Temple’s Fox School of Business, previous research tended to focus on gender differences, assuming that women approached negotiations differently than men and that men were more competitive. “We were surprised to find no differences with respect to how men and women negotiated.”

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Wednesday, October 20, 2010

Media Contact: Brandon Lausch, 215-204-4115, blausch@temple.edu

Successful Negotiation Can Lead to an Additional $600K over the Course of a Career

A recent study conducted by George Mason and Temple University

Crystal Harold

researchers uncovered the most effective strategies to negotiating a bigger salary. The study analyzed various approaches to the negotiation process, which methods were the most successful and which ones were more likely to leave both parties satisfied with the outcome.

Michelle Marks, associate professor in Mason’ School of Management, and Crystal Harold, assistant professor at Temple University’s Fox School of Business, co-authored the study. A sample of newly hired employees in various industry settings participated in the study which showed that those who chose to negotiate increased their starting salaries by an average of $5,000.

“In today’s economic climate, raising your annual salary is highly uncertain,” Marks said. “However, our study results highlight the significance of effective salary negotiation and why it’s important to be upfront with the issues, enabling both parties to consider creative ways to find win-win solutions.”

According to the study, which will soon be published in the Journal of Organizational Behavior, the compounding effect of successful salary negotiation can be significant. Assuming an average annual pay increase of five percent, an employee whose starting annual salary was $55,000 rather than $50,000 would earn an additional $600,000+ over the course of a 40-year career.

Five negotiation strategies were examined in the study: Accommodating, Avoiding, Collaborating, Competing and Compromising. Individuals who negotiated by using the Collaborating and Competing strategies—utilizing open discussion of issues and perspectives—showed the best results. In contrast, those who used the Avoiding, Accommodating and Compromising approaches were less successful in negotiating larger salaries.

“While more aggressive negotiation strategies succeeded in raising one’s starting salaries, people who used them felt less satisfied with their outcome than did those who used more collaborative approaches,” Marks said. “Those who were overly accommodating ended up feeling the least satisfied and that the process was unfair.”

The study found that men and women were equally likely to negotiate, but that women were less effective at raising their salaries when compared to men. Though women were more likely to have integrative attitudes about negotiation, they were no more inclined to use a particular strategy than men.

“We were surprised to find no differences with respect to how men and women negotiated,” Harold said. “Previous research tended to focus on gender differences and the negotiated outcome, assuming that women approached negotiations differently than men and that men were more competitive. Our study found that, although job-seekers approach negotiation differently, negotiation strategy was unrelated to gender.”

Non-salary gains, such as vacation time and perks, were also analyzed. More than half of the people polled who chose to negotiate received at least one additional non-salary gain.

Oct. 19, 2010

A new study from George Mason University and Temple University researchers finds that people who negotiated their starting salaries, as opposed to those who chose not to negotiate, increased their starting pay by an average of $5,000. The study, co-authored by Fox School of Business assistant professor Crystal Harold, discovered certain negotiation strategies were more effective than others at increasing starting salaries. Strategies that involved open discussions of key issues and perspectives were more effective than compromising and accommodation. The least effective strategies were avoiding salary negotiation all together, using an accommodating strategy, and compromising.

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Sept. 19, 2010

Competitive strategies in pay-raise negotiations can lead to some professionals earning more than $600,000 during the course of their careers than their negotiation-averse counterparts, according to a forthcoming study co-authored by Fox School of Business Assistant Professor Crystal Harold. The study stresses that salary negotiation is acceptable and delineates a handful of basic guidelines for successfully negotiating higher pay. “We wanted to open up the black box of the negotiating process, if you will,” Harold said.

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